You pass by Magnesium dietary supplements on the shelves, maybe wondering about it’s benefits. Well, maybe you can benefit from magnesium. Studies have proven that Magnesium-rich supplement and medication could help control blood glucose level, blood pressure, muscle and nerve function, energy production and plays an important role on having a normal heart rhythm. Not having enough Magnesium in your body (Magnesium deficiency) could lead to serious health issues that could be avoided.
According to recent research, an adult body contains approximately 25 g magnesium, with 50% to 60% present in the bones and most of the rest in soft tissues. Less than 1% of total magnesium is in blood serum, and these levels are kept under tight control. Normal serum magnesium concentrations range between 0.75 and 0.95 millimoles (mmol)/L . Hypomagnesemia is defined as a serum magnesium level less than 0.75 mmol/L. Magnesium homeostasis is largely controlled by the kidney, which typically excretes about 120 mg into the urine each day. Urinary excretion is reduced when magnesium status is low.
Sources of Magnesium
Magnesium is widely distributed in plant and animal foods, and in beverages. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, are good source . In general, foods containing dietary fiber provide magnesium. It is also added to some breakfast cereals and other fortified foods. Tap, mineral, and bottled waters can also be sources of magnesium, but the amount found in water varies by source and brand per research.
Intake And Benefits of Magnesium
Daily values were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet. The daily value for magnesium is 400 mg for adults and children aged 4 and older. However, the FDA does not require food labels to list magnesium content unless a food has been fortified with this nutrient. Foods providing 20% or more of the daily value are considered to be high sources of a nutrient.
It is also a primary ingredient in some laxatives
Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia®, for example, provides 500 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium hydroxide) per tablespoon; the directions advise taking up to 4 tablespoons/day for adolescents and adults. It is also included in some remedies for heartburn and upset stomach due to acid indigestion. Extra-strength Rolaids®, for example, provides 55 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium hydroxide) per tablet, although Tums® is magnesium free according to resent research.
Groups at Risk of Magnesium Inadequacy
Type 2 diabetes
People with alcohol dependence
Habitually low intakes of magnesium induce changes that can increase the risk of illness over time, some of these diseases includes:
- Hypertension and cardiovascular disease
- Type 2 diabetes
- Migraine headaches.
Now, before rushing to the vitamins shelves, you need to know that Magnesium could interact with some medications or illness.
Magnesium-rich supplements or medications can decrease the absorption of oral bisphosphonates, such as alendronate (Fosamax®), used to treat osteoporosis. Use of magnesium-rich supplements or medications and oral bisphosphonates should be separated by at least 2 hours.
Magnesium can form insoluble complexes with tetracyclines, such as demeclocycline (Declomycin®) and doxycycline (Vibramycin®), as well as quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro®) and levofloxacin (Levaquin®). These antibiotics should be taken at least 2 hours before or 4–6 hours after a magnesium-containing supplement.
Chronic treatment with loop diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix®) and bumetanide (Bumex®), and thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide (Aquazide H®) and ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®), can increase the loss of magnesium in urine and lead to magnesium depletion. In contrast, potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride (Midamor®) and spironolactone (Aldactone®), reduce magnesium excretion.
Proton pump inhibitors
Prescription proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drugs, such as esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium®) and lansoprazole (Prevacid®), when taken for prolonged periods (typically more than a year) can cause hypomagnesemia. In cases that FDA reviewed, magnesium supplements often raised the low serum magnesium levels caused by PPIs. However, in 25% of the cases, supplements did not raise magnesium levels and the patients had to discontinue the PPI. FDA advises healthcare professionals to consider measuring patients’ serum magnesium levels prior to initiating long-term PPI treatment and to check magnesium levels in these patients periodically.
Magnesium and Healthful Diets
The federal government’s 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that “Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. … Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended dose.